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Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers


This page contains the collection of Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers / Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) under category Testing. These questions are collected from various resources like informative websites, forums, blogs, discussion boards including MSDN and Wikipedia. These listed questions can surely help in preparing for Manual Testing interview or job.

What is bidirectional traceability?
Bidirectional traceability needs to be implemented both forward and backward (i.e., from requirements to end products and from end product back to requirements).
When the requirements are managed well, traceability can be established from the source requirement to its lower level requirements and from the lower level requirements back to their source. Such bidirectional traceability helps determine that all source requirements have been completely addressed and that all lower level requirements can be traced to a valid source.

What is the maximum length of the test case we can write?
We can't say exactly test case length, it depending on functionality.

What is internationalization Testing?
Software Internationalization is process of developing software products independent from cultural norms, language or other specific attributes of a market

What does black-box testing mean at the unit, integration, and system levels?
Tests for each software requirement using
Equivalence Class Partitioning, Boundary Value Testing, and more
Test cases for system software requirements using the Trace Matrix, Cross-functional Testing, Decision Tables, and more
Test cases for system integration for configurations, manual operations, etc.

What is Bug life cycle?
New: when tester reports a defect
Open: when developer accepts that it is a bug or if the developer rejects the defect, then the status is turned into "Rejected"
Fixed: when developer make changes to the code to rectify the bug...
Closed/Reopen: when tester tests it again. If the expected result shown up, it is turned into "Closed" and if the problem persists again, it's "Reopen".

Smoke test? Do you use any automation tool for smoke testing?
Testing the application whether it's performing its basic functionality properly or not, so that the test team can go ahead with the application. Definitely can use.

When a bug is found, what is the first action?
Report it in bug tracking tool.

Advantages of automation over manual testing?
Time saving, resource and money

For Web Applications what type of tests are you going to do?
Web-based applications present new challenges, these challenges include:
- Short release cycles;
- Constantly Changing Technology;
- Possible huge number of users during initial website launch;
- Inability to control the user's running environment;
- 24-hour availability of the web site.


The quality of a website must be evident from the Onset. Any difficulty whether in response time, accuracy of information, or ease of use-will compel the user to click to a competitor's site. Such problems translate into lost of users, lost sales, and poor company image.


To overcome these types of problems, use the following techniques:
1. Functionality Testing
Functionality testing involves making Sure the features that most affect user interactions work properly. These include:
� forms
� searches
� pop-up windows
� shopping carts
� online payments

2. Usability Testing
Many users have low tolerance for anything that is difficult to use or that does not work. A user's first impression of the site is important, and many websites have become cluttered with an increasing number of features. For general-use websites frustrated users can easily click over a competitor's site.

Usability testing involves following main steps
� identify the website's purpose;
� identify the indented users ;
� define tests and conduct the usability testing
� analyze the acquired information

3. Navigation Testing
Good Navigation is an essential part of a website, especially those that are complex and provide a lot of information. Assessing navigation is a major part of usability Testing.

4. Forms Testing
Websites that use forms need tests to ensure that each field works properly and that the forms posts all data as intended by the designer.

5. Page Content Testing
Each web page must be tested for correct content from the user perspective for correct content from the user perspective. These tests fall into two categories: ensuring that each component functions correctly and ensuring that the content of each is correct.

6. Configuration and Compatibility testing
A key challenge for web applications is ensuring that the user sees a web page as the designer intended. The user can select different browser software and browser options, use different network software and on-line service, and run other concurrent applications. We execute the application under every browser/platform combination to ensure the web sites work properly under various environments.

7. Reliability and Availability Testing
A key requirement o a website is that it Be available whenever the user requests it, after 24-hours a day, every day. The number of users accessing web site simultaneously may also affect the site's availability.

8. Performance Testing
Performance Testing, which evaluates System performance under normal and heavy usage, is crucial to success of any web application. A system that takes for long to respond may frustrate the user who can then quickly move to a competitor's site. Given enough time, every page request will eventually be delivered. Performance testing seeks to ensure that the website server responds to browser requests within defined parameters.

9. Load Testing
The purpose of Load testing is to model real world experiences, typically by generating many simultaneous users accessing the website. We use automation tools to increases the ability to conduct a valid load test, because it emulates thousand of users by sending simultaneous requests to the application or the server.

10. Stress Testing
Stress Testing consists of subjecting the system to varying and maximum loads to evaluate the resulting performance. We use automated test tools to simulate loads on website and execute the tests continuously for several hours or days.

11. Security Testing
Security is a primary concern when communicating and conducting business- especially sensitive and business- critical transactions - over the internet. The user wants assurance that personal and financial information is secure. Finding the vulnerabilities in an application that would grant an unauthorized user access to the system is important.

What is Testing environment in your company, means how testing process start?
Testing process is going as follows:
Quality assurance unit
Quality assurance manager
Test lead
Test engineer

What is a Use case?
A simple flow between the end user and the system. It contains pre conditions, post conditions, normal flows and exceptions. It is done by Team Lead/Test Lead/Tester.

How you are breaking down the project among team members?
It can be depend on these following cases----
1) Number of modules
2) Number of team members
3) Complexity of the Project
4) Time Duration of the project
5) Team member's experience etc......

What is a Test Server?
The place where the developers put their development modules, which are accessed by the testers to test the functionality.

What are the differences between these three words Error, Defect and Bug?
Error: The deviation from the required logic, syntax or standards/ethics is called as error.

There are three types of error. They are:
Syntax error (This is due to deviation from the syntax of the language what supposed to follow).
Logical error (This is due to deviation from the logic of the program what supposed to follow)
Execution error (This is generally happens when you are executing the same program, that time you get it.)
Defect: When an error found by the test engineer (testing department) then it is called defect

Bug: if the defect is agreed by the developer then it converts into bug, which has to fix by the developer or post pond to next version.

There are two sand clocks(timers) one complete totally in 7 minutes and other in 9-minutes we have to calculate with this timers and bang the bell after completion of 11- minutes!plz give me the solution.
1. Start both clocks
2. When 7 min clock complete, turn it so that it restarts.
3. When 9 min clock finish, turn 7 min clocks (It has 2 mints only).
4. When 7 min clock finishes, 11 min complete.

What are the technical reviews?
For each document, it should be reviewed. Technical Review in the sense, for each screen, developer will write a Technical Specification. It should be reviewed by developer and tester. There are functional specification review, unit test case review and code review etc.

Explain ETVX concept?
E- Entry Criteria
T- Task
V- Validation
X- Exit Criteria

ENTRY CRITERIA: Input with 'condition' attached.
e.g. Approved SRS document is the entry criteria for the design phase.

TASK: Procedures.
e.g. Preparation of HLD, LLD etc.

VALIDATION: Building quality & Verification activities
e.g. Technical reviews

EXIT CRITERIA: Output with 'condition' attached.
e.g Approved design document
It is important to follow ETVX concept for all phases in SDLC.

If the client identified some bugs to whom did he reported?
He will report to the Project Manager. Project Manager will arrange a meeting with all the leads (Dev. Manager, Test Lead and Requirement Manager) then raise a Change Request and then, identify which all the screens are going to be impacted by the bug. They will take the code and correct it and send it to the Testing Team.

At what phase tester role starts?
In SDLC after complition of FRS document the test lead prepare the use case document and test plan document, then the tester role is start.

Actually how many positive and negetive testcases will write for a module?
That depends on the module and complexity of logic. For every test case, we can identify +ve and -ve points. Based on the criteria, we will write the test cases, If it is crucial process or screen. We should check the screen,in all the boundary conditions.

What are the main bugs which were identified by you and in that how many are considered as real bugs?
If you take one screen, let's say, it has got 50 Test conditions, out of which, I have identified 5 defects which are failed. I should give the description defect, severity and defect classfication. All the defects will be considered.

Defect Classification are:
GRP : Graphical Representation
LOG : Logical Error
DSN : Design Error
STD : Standard Error
TST : Wrong Test case
TYP : Typographical Error (Cosmotic Error)

What is Six sigma?
Six Sigma:
A quality discipline that focuses on product and service excellence to create a culture that demands perfection on target, every time.

Six Sigma quality levels
Produces 99.9997% accuracy, with only 3.4 defects per million opportunities.

Six Sigma is designed to dramatically upgrade a company's performance, improving quality and productivity. Using existing products, processes, and service standards,
They go for Six Sigma MAIC methodology to upgrade performance.


MAIC is defined as follows:
Measure: Gather the right data to accurately assess a problem.
Analyze: Use statistical tools to correctly identify the root causes of a problem
Improve: Correct the problem (not the symptom).
Control: Put a plan in place to make sure problems stay fixed and sustain the gains.

Key Roles and Responsibilities:

The key roles in all Six Sigma efforts are as follows:
Sponsor: Business executive leading the organization.
Champion: Responsible for Six Sigma strategy, deployment, and vision.
Process Owner: Owner of the process, product, or service being improved responsible for long-term sustainable gains.
Master Black Belts: Coach black belts expert in all statistical tools.
Black Belts: Work on 3 to 5 $250,000-per-year projects; create $1 million per year in value.
Green Belts: Work with black belt on projects.

What are cookies? Tell me the advantage and disadvantage of cookies?
Cookies are messages that web servers pass to your web browser when you visit Internet sites. Your browser stores each message in a small file. When you request another page from the server, your browser sends the cookie back to the server. These files typically contain information about your visit to the web page, as well as any information you've volunteered, such as your name and interests. Cookies are most commonly used to track web site activity. When you visit some sites, the server gives you a cookie that acts as your identification card. Upon each return visit to that site, your browser passes that cookie back to the server. In this way, a web server can gather information about which web pages are used the most, and which pages are gathering the most repeat hits. Only the web site that creates the cookie can read it. Additionally, web servers can only use information that you provide or choices that you make while visiting the web site as content in cookies. Accepting a cookie does not give a server access to your computer or any of your personal information. Servers can only read cookies that they have set, so other servers do not have access to your information. Also, it is not possible to execute code from a cookie, and not possible to use a cookie to deliver a virus.

What is stub? Explain in testing point of view?
Stub is a dummy program or component, the code is not ready for testing, it's used for testing...that means, in a project if there are 4 modules and last is remaining and there is no time then we will use dummy program to complete that fourth module and we will run whole 4 modules also. The dummy program is also known as stub.

Define Brain Stromming and Cause Effect Graphing?
BS:
A learning technique involving open group discussion intended to expand the range of available ideas
OR
A meeting to generate creative ideas. At PEPSI Advertising, daily, weekly and bi-monthly brainstorming sessions are held by various work groups within the firm. Our monthly I-Power brainstorming meeting is attended by the entire agency staff.
OR
Brainstorming is a highly structured process to help generate ideas. It is based on the principle that you cannot generate and evaluate ideas at the same time. To use brainstorming, you must first gain agreement from the group to try brainstorming for a fixed interval (eg six minutes).

CEG:
A testing technique that aids in selecting, in a systematic way, a high-yield set of test cases that logically relates causes to effects to produce test cases. It has a beneficial side effect in pointing out incompleteness and ambiguities in specifications.

Password is having 6 digit alphanumeric then what are the possible input conditions?
Including special characters also Possible input conditions are:
1) Input password as = 6abcde (ie number first)
2) Input password as = abcde8 (ie character first)
3) Input password as = 123456 (all numbers)
4) Input password as = abcdef (all characters)
5) Input password less than 6 digit
6) Input password greater than 6 digits
7) Input password as special characters
8) Input password in CAPITAL ie uppercase
9) Input password including space
10) (SPACE) followed by alphabets /numerical /alphanumerical/

Explain agile testing?
Agile testing is used whenever customer requirements are changing dynamically

If we have no SRS, BRS but we have test cases does you execute the test cases blindly or do you follow any other process.

Test case would have detail steps of what the application is supposed to do.
1) Functionality of application.
2) In addition you can refer to Backend, is mean look into the Database. To gain more knowledge of the application.

What is deferred status in defect life cycle?
Deferred status means the developer accepted the bus, but it is scheduled to rectify in the next build.

Verification and validation?
Verification is static. No code is executed. Say, analysis of requirements etc.
Validation is dynamic. Code is executed with scenarios present in test cases.

What is test plan and explain its contents?
Test plan is a document which contains the scope for testing the application and what to be tested, when to be tested and who to test.

What is mean by release notes?
It's a document released along with the product which explains about the product. It also contains about the bugs that are in deferred status.

Give an example of high priority and low severity, low priority and high severity?
Severity level:

The degree of impact the issue or problem has on the project. Severity 1 usually means the highest level requiring immediate attention. Severity 5 usually represents a documentation defect of minimal impact.

Severity is levels:

* Critical: the software will not run
* High: unexpected fatal errors (includes crashes and data corruption)
* Medium: a feature is malfunctioning
* Low: a cosmetic issue


Severity levels

1. Bug causes system crash or data loss.
2. Bug causes major functionality or other severe problems; product crashes in obscure cases.
3. Bug causes minor functionality problems, may affect "fit anf finish".
4. Bug contains typos, unclear wording or error messages in low visibility fields.


Severity levels

* High: A major issue where a large piece of functionality or major system component is completely broken. There is no workaround and testing cannot continue.
* Medium: A major issue where a large piece of functionality or major system component is not working properly. There is a workaround, however, and testing can continue.
* Low: A minor issue that imposes some loss of functionality, but for which there is an acceptable and easily reproducible workaround. Testing can proceed without interruption.


Severity and Priority

Priority is Relative: the priority might change over time. Perhaps a bug initially deemed P1 becomes rated as P2 or even a P3 as the schedule draws closer to the release and as the test team finds even more heinous errors. Priority is a subjective evaluation of how important an issue is, given other tasks in the queue and the current schedule. It�s relative. It shifts over time. And it�s a business decision.

Severity is an absolute: it�s an assessment of the impact of the bug without regard to other work in the queue or the current schedule. The only reason severity should change is if we have new information that causes us to re-evaluate our assessment. If it was a high severity issue when I entered it, it�s still a high severity issue when it�s deferred to the next release. The severity hasn�t changed just because we�ve run out of time. The priority changed.

Severity Levels can be defined as follow:

S1 - Urgent/Showstopper. Like system crash or error message forcing to close the window.
Tester's ability to operate the system either totally (System Down), or almost totally, affected. A major area of the users system is affected by the incident and it is significant to business processes.

S2 - Medium/Workaround. Exist like when a problem is required in the specs but tester can go on with testing. Incident affects an area of functionality but there is a work-around which negates impact to business process. This is a problem that:
a) Affects a more isolated piece of functionality.
b) Occurs only at certain boundary conditions.
c) Has a workaround (where "don't do that" might be an acceptable answer to the user).
d) Occurs only at one or two customers. or is intermittent

S3 - Low. This is for minor problems, such as failures at extreme boundary conditions that are unlikely to occur in normal use, or minor errors in
layout/formatting. Problems do not impact use of the product in any substantive way. These are incidents that are cosmetic in nature and of no or very low impact to business processes.

Diff. between STLC and SDLC?
STLC is software test life cycle it starts with

* Preparing the test strategy.
* Preparing the test plan.
* Creating the test environment.
* Writing the test cases.
* Creating test scripts.
* Executing the test scripts.
* Analyzing the results and reporting the bugs.
* Doing regression testing.
* Test exiting.

SDLC is software or system development life cycle, phases are...

* Project initiation.
* Requirement gathering and documenting.
* Designing.
* Coding and unit testing.
* Integration testing.
* System testing.
* Installation and acceptance testing. " Support or maintenance.

What is Test Data Collection?
Test data is the collection of input data taken for testing the application. Various types and size of input data will be taken for testing the applications. Sometimes in critical application the test data collection will be given by the client also.

What are non-functional requirements?
The non-functional requirements of a software product are: reliability, usability, efficiency, delivery time, software development environment, security requirements, standards to be followed etc.

Why we perform stress-testing, resolution-testing and cross- browser testing?
Stress Testing: - We need to check the performance of the application.
Def: Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements
Resolution Testing: - Some times developer created only for 1024 resolution, the same page displayed a horizontal scroll bar in 800 x 600 resolutions. No body can like the horizontal scroll appears in the screen. That is reason to test the Resolution testing.

Cross-browser Testing: - This testing some times called compatibility testing. When we develop the pages in IE compatible, the same page is not working in Fairfox or Netscape properly, because
most of the scripts are not supporting to other than IE. So that we need to test the cross-browser Testing

What is the minimum criteria for white box?
We should know the logic, code and the structure of the program or function. Internal knowledge of the application how the system works what's the logic behind it and structure how it should react to particular action.

In what basis you will write test cases?
I would write the Test cases based on Functional Specifications and BRDs and some more test cases using the Domain knowledge.

What are the main key components in Web applications and client and Server applications? (differences)?
For Web Applications: Web application can be implemented using any kind of technology like Java, .NET, VB, ASP, CGI& PERL. Based on the technology,We can derive the components.

Let's take Java Web Application. It can be implemented in 3 tier architecture. Presentation tier (jsp, html, dthml,servlets, struts). Busienss Tier (Java Beans, EJB, JMS) Data Tier(Databases like Oracle, SQL Server etc., )

If you take .NET Application, Presentation (ASP, HTML, DHTML), Business Tier (DLL) & Data Tier ( Database like Oracle, SQL Server etc.,)

Client Server Applications: It will have only 2 tiers. One is Presentation (Java, Swing) and Data Tier (Oracle, SQL Server). If it is client Server architecture, the entire application has to be installed on the client machine. When ever you do any changes in your code, Again, It has to be installed on all the client machines. Where as in Web Applications, Core Application will reside on the server and client can be thin Client(browser). Whatever the changes you do, you have to install the application in the server. NO need to worry about the clients. Because, You will not install any thing on the client machine.

What is the formal technical review?
Technical review should be done by the team of members. The document, which is going to be reviewed, who has prepared and reviewers should sit together and do the review of that document. It is called Peer Review. If it is a technical document, It can be called as formal Technical review, I guess. It varies depends on the company policy.

Explain Software metrics?
Measurement is fundamental to any engineering discipline
Why Metrics?
- We cannot control what we cannot measure!
- Metrics helps to measure quality
- Serves as dash-board

The main metrices are :size,shedule,defects.In this there are main sub metrices.

Test Coverage = Number of units (KLOC/FP) tested / total size of the system
Test cost (in %) = Cost of testing / total cost *100
Cost to locate defect = Cost of testing / the number of defects located
Defects detected in testing (in %) = Defects detected in testing / total system defects*100
Acceptance criteria tested = Acceptance criteria tested / total acceptance criteria

What is Software reliability?
It is the probability that software will work without failure for a specified period of time in a specified environment.Reliability of software is measured in terms of Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF). For eg if MTBF = 10000 hours for an average software, then it should not fail for 10000 hours of continous operation.

What the main use of preparing a traceability matrix?
Traceability matrix is prepared in order to cross check the test cases designed against each requirement, hence giving an opportunity to verify that all the requirements are covered in testing the application.
(Or)
To Cross verify the prepared test cases and test scripts with user requirements. To monitor the changes, enhance occurred during the development of the project.

What is TRM?
TRM means Test Responsibility Matrix.

TRM: --- It indicates mapping between test factors and development stages...

Test factors like:
Ease of use, reliability, portability, authorization, access control, audit trail, ease of operates, maintainable... Like dat...
Development stages...
Requirement gathering, Analysis, design, coding, testing, and maintenance

What is the difference between Product-based Company and Projects-based Company?
Product based company develops the applications for Global clients i.e. there is no specific clients. Here requirements are gathered from market and analyzed with experts.
Project based company develops the applications for the specific client. The requirements are gathered from the client and analyzed with the client.

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